English Parliament

With order to maintain the "double vote" – the right to vote not only by place of residence, but also the location of the immovable property. Reform in 1885 was held the next redistribution districts in such a way that 50 – 54 thousand residents elected a deputy. However, continuation of the majoritarian electoral system, in order to win in the district was sufficient to obtain a relative majority of votes, distorts the will of the voters on a scale country as a whole. In the late XIX – early XX century. English Parliament becomes an instrument of government, hold a majority of votes in the House of Commons. Organizational structure and party discipline, developed major parties in relation to the British parliamentary system, the deputy determined the submission of each party to their leader. For maintaining party discipline and ensuring the right outcome to the Government a vote watched as called parliamentary whips.

Reduce the role of Parliament has also contributed to limiting the freedom of the debate. In 1882, after the Irish MPs used to disrupt the freedom to debate emergency legislation, the House of Commons adopted the Bill of Rights closure. This innovation made it possible for the government at any time raise a point of closure, if they were deployed in evil for its direction. Thus, government, hold a majority in the House of Commons, using the right of legislative initiative, a system of "carrots" and the rules of the closure, determined the direction of the House of Commons and is subject to its interests activities of the legislature. August 18, 1911 was adopted by Act of Parliament to limit the powers of the Lords. The reason for his decision was the obstructionist policy of the upper chamber for a government bill on the budget.

Under the Act 1911 appropriation bill, passed the House of Commons, but not approved within a month the House of Lords, was presented to the king and became law. With respect to non-financial bills was installed the following order: if this bill was accepted by the Commons in three successive sessions, and each time rejected by the House of Lords, it seemed to the king for approval. But between the readings Bill on first and third sessions was to be held not less than two years, which kept the House of Lords for the opportunity for a long time to sabotage the adoption of non-financial bills. At the same time the Parliament Act reduced the House of Commons term from seven to five years.

World War I

As to why the subsequent defeat of the German Empire in World War I, then researchers have linked it to the following reasons: 1) domestic and foreign policies of Germany as a whole did not meet the spirit of the times, and 2) the socio-political strikes and protests demoralized German army, and 3) promise Western democracies to influence the situation encouraged by the Germans, but could not really save the day. March 3, 1918 signed the Brest-Lithuanian agreement concerning the cessation of hostilities on the Eastern Front. In the West Kaiser's army nevertheless continued to make preparations for a decisive battle, though, military analysts predicted, the gains in the war had already been absolutely impossible. This fact is strenuously concealed from the German people. So, in July – August 1918, when Germany's military campaigns, one after the other defeated, senior military commanders Hindenburg and P. E. Ludendorff still retained the appearance of optimism, assuring the public the ability to quick victory in Germany. Meanwhile, already September 14, 1918 Germany's ally Austria-Hungarian Empire began to persuade the parties to sign a truce of a military conflict.

Undoubtedly, the main event of the summer and autumn of 1918, a kind of apotheosis of the end of the war was wish the German armed forces "to lay down their arms and surrender on any terms" – This was a disappointing surprise to Kaiser as chancellor of the country, and for party leaders to the Reichstag. Thus, already between the ruling elite of the country and the German people (soldiers Reichswehr) there has been a huge gulf in ideology and politics. German sources for this period of contemporary history note great regret the German people about the fact that during his (people) suffering, hardship and hope have been unsuccessful in the military field. The blame for what happened – for the war, with the course of military operations and their end – the Germans then laid responsibility for their commander in chief – the Kaiser of the country. October 3, 1918 the then German Chancellor M von Baden on behalf of Kaiser Wilhelm II made an unequivocal statement of U.S. President W. Wilson, his country's readiness to sign a truce. The news quickly spread through all areas of Germany.

In response to a statement he sent to Woodrow Wilson October 23, 1918 hinted at the impossibility of dialogue with Germany's authoritarian regime, which greatly complicated the situation on the eve of signing a peace treaty at Versailles. October 26, 1918 by Kaiser Hard-demand shifts from the position of chancellor commander of German troops, E. Ludendorff, who at that time unwisely insisted "the war to a victorious end." There is no doubt that the Kaiser pondered the question of the "end of empire", but was strongly against changing the monarchy Germany, believing that this will lead to the collapse of the constitutional way of life of the country. The necessity of its own presence in the office of Kaiser Wilhelm II explained, not least the fact that he must personally participate in the discussion of details of a peace treaty. October 29, 1918 an alarming situation in Germany worsened uprising of sailors one of the German fleet on the eve of its entry into the battle. The Audacity of sailors was not without reason: in Germany in the impending fall of 1918 to complete military defeat has intensified to the extreme social and political tangle of contradictions. The wave of revolts and strikes in the Army and Navy reached the seaport of Kiel. Stop the approaching revolutionary storm is not impossible.


My name is Dmitry, I am a fifth-year student. I spend almost every summer in the north – to work. And then decided that we should at the end of student life to relax a human being. The question arose – where? It could be the Altai, but I want to directly summer since summer – warm sand, sun-tanned girls. Sochi and the neighborhood – has heard, I do not.

Kazantip – but I'm not a club at all. Foreign – Turkey, Egypt, once there, Thailand – terrible, Goa, Bali, scary, but I want more than scary. Resolved – Goa. The decision was taken in early January 2010 and I began to slowly get ready. Where to start? Of course, the passport.

One glimpse had heard that problem could be with his receipt – turns wild and all that. But I have two Friends receive the passport and they say no problem, especially in January – out of season, the queues should not be. Visited the site. I looked all the information. I decided to make new passports (biometric). Recorded what necessary documents, downloaded the example program to complete the questionnaire (just downloaded the example of filling) and started. Program complete the questionnaire – "stupid," an ill-conceived and very annoying. Began to fill the questionnaire and I can not understand why the program does not have those rows that are in the example. It then occurred to me that on the screen these lines are not (a place for signatures for example), but the print will appear.


The first mention of the scale refers to the sixth millennium bc. Suggest that the scales in the form of an equal balance beam with a suspended cups first appeared in ancient Babylon and Egypt. in the form of an equal balance beam with a hanging cups first appeared in ancient Babylon and Egypt. Image of an equal balance a sophisticated, according to experts, designs can be seen on the pyramid at Giza. Much later constructed neravnoplechie scale with movable weights. Research in Weighing The famous scholars of antiquity – Euclid, Archimedes. Everyone knows the legend that Archimedes leapt out of the bath shouting ''.

It was at this moment, if you follow a legend, he figured out how to determine from what made the crown the king of Syracuse. At one yoke weights Archimedes dealt division and reinforced the weights, which could be moved. Putting on the cup weights of the crown, he compensates for it with gold. Then both cups plunged into the water. Archimedes came from the fact that different metals with equal their weight should take differing amounts and buoyant force equal to the weight of water displaced fluid. Therefore, a balance must be broken if the bowls are different metals of equal weight. To restore it had to move weights on the beam.

Archimedes made the grading of shoulder yoke for all then known metals and alloys. He found that in the corona more silver than gold. Aristotle in the iv century bc formulated a rule of moments of forces, which first recognized the theory of weights.

Esoteric Tourism

The phenomenon of esoteric tourism gradually logged in Arkaima life in 1991-1992, is still one of the most vibrant and painful problems for archaeologists. As a rule, are not interested in esoteric original archaeological evidence: in his spiritual quest, they are based on pseudo-scientific works of E. Muldasheva, V. Putenikhin, and, besides, the works of Blavatsky and Roerich. Teaching about Arkaim as a "place of power," the "Valley power poles, "about" home of Atlantis, "Arch discredit in the eyes of the scientific community, and ritual actions of these people lead to the deterioration of the environment. Followers of non-traditional knowledge is sometimes accuse scientists of "brazen archaeological deception" as well as material reality Arkaima does not meet their expectations, and prevent a full-fledged scientific work. On top of all this misery fame generates high expectations among the representatives of nationalist movements emerging from their ethnic identity, or who are in search of itself.

Some representatives of the modern Bashkir society consider the ancient Bashkir Arch monument, and the Russian bind him with the idea of the "Russian arias" and "ancient Aryan civilization." The emergence of the "Aryan myth" on Russian soil, sometimes straight identified with neo-Nazism, and this clearly demonstrates the profound mental and social problems of contemporary Russia. Shadow-boxing As part of this problem have been made major emphasis of meaning transfer "Gordon Quixote," but the principle has been distorted beyond recognition and as such presented to the viewer. To the question, or, as Mr. Gordon, the "problem Arkaima" was presented to two, to seemingly opposite points of view.