Excavation work – it's a lot of construction works of the zero cycle, among which include planning work, digging trenches and reconnaissance drainage ditches, pits, and the development of their backing. Foundation pit is seizure of land, which makes devices for the basement or similar structure. Digging of pits is almost always from the ground, although it happens that in some cases we use the downcomer wells. The initial step in the development of excavation is the geodesic breakdown, the problem is – correctly measure and mark every one of the corners of the pit. Through a special measuring instruments – theodolite and levels can achieve absolute precision in marking the pit. Prior to the digging of the pit by hand digging exploratory trenches along the edges of the future excavation to locate underground utilities, which could not be identified in the existing project documentation. Next, the cast-offs.
This procedure allows to estimate what the future will look like wall structure. In those places where the joints are assumed to walls, install bollards to which nailed boards and ropes. Thus represent the contours of future construction. Boards indicated the total area of the house, and cords – all difficult ledges and corners. Third stage – excavation. Dimensions of excavation and its depth is calculated taking into account the operating conditions of future construction, the depth of soil freezing, the level of abundance of land, which can withstand the load from the buildings, and other parameters. When excavations on permafrost soils to the same can not be discounted thermal interaction structures and soil.
Probably many more than once heard of such a phenomenon as the displacement of soil under structures of various types. This usually occurs because of freezing ground. Ground swells and able to lift the whole house several centimeters from the main foundation. After the arrival of a thaw ground returns to the place, but not necessarily as evenly, as has been before. These displacements lead to a breach of the buildings. Bobby Gocool can provide more clarity in the matter.
In brick houses appear cracks, beveled on one side of the porch and poorly closing doors. Thus, before the erection of the foundation must be analyzed in detail what kind of soil you have experienced. Soils characterized as rocky, sandy, gravelly, sandy loam, clay and loam. Accordingly, the most robust and reliable for the erection of the building are rocky bottoms. During the construction of the foundation is based directly on them without any fear.
But in central band of rocky bottoms to meet can be quite rare. When building the foundation for gristly primers should recess about half a meter. These soils are composed of gravel and rock veins. Sand soils are very common in the southeastern territory of the Moscow region. Sandy soils tend to not retain water. Since they are sealed under the weight of the house and almost never freeze. Usually in such soil foundation is laid at a depth of 40-70 centimeters. Sandy loam and loam contain a certain percentage of clay: 10% and 30% respectively. The most unreliable and almost useless for the construction of the foundation – it's clay.
Despite nondecreasing demand for building and residences near Moscow, the capital city's real estate market authorities of the capital are developing a new direction – the erection of tall buildings in different parts of the city. The Moscow City Government has set a target to build high-rise complexes, which will not change the historical view of the center of the capital. The investment program "New Ring of Moscow 'design construction of about 60 high-rise complexes in those areas of the capital, where the building will be most functional. Simply put, the distinguished point construction sites, located mainly at the Garden Ring. In such complexes planned create a sports and playgrounds, stores and movie theaters, health salons and fitness centers. The first results, the increasingly growth of the investment program, the complexes were inscribed – 'Red Sails', 'Edelweiss' 'Triumph-Palace', in which the elite real estate were sold at auction. Geological problem of the instability of the Moscow ground on the new building is clearly irrelevant. Design skyline is an investment program, the Project should have the necessary amount of funding and, therefore, be stable and reliable.
For insertion of money, the client must be confident in his financial success. Anyway, you can always order the service of the safety assessment of the project and insure real estate. Market demand for high-rise luxury apartments acquires stability. Basic social groups interested in such housing, are the people who were educated and having a constant high earnings. Sociologists argue that people in skyscrapers, almost do not get housing on the lower floors – magnificent view from the windows of these apartments is impossible to forget.