English Parliament

With order to maintain the "double vote" – the right to vote not only by place of residence, but also the location of the immovable property. Reform in 1885 was held the next redistribution districts in such a way that 50 – 54 thousand residents elected a deputy. However, continuation of the majoritarian electoral system, in order to win in the district was sufficient to obtain a relative majority of votes, distorts the will of the voters on a scale country as a whole. In the late XIX – early XX century. English Parliament becomes an instrument of government, hold a majority of votes in the House of Commons. Organizational structure and party discipline, developed major parties in relation to the British parliamentary system, the deputy determined the submission of each party to their leader. For maintaining party discipline and ensuring the right outcome to the Government a vote watched as called parliamentary whips.

Reduce the role of Parliament has also contributed to limiting the freedom of the debate. In 1882, after the Irish MPs used to disrupt the freedom to debate emergency legislation, the House of Commons adopted the Bill of Rights closure. This innovation made it possible for the government at any time raise a point of closure, if they were deployed in evil for its direction. Thus, government, hold a majority in the House of Commons, using the right of legislative initiative, a system of "carrots" and the rules of the closure, determined the direction of the House of Commons and is subject to its interests activities of the legislature. August 18, 1911 was adopted by Act of Parliament to limit the powers of the Lords. The reason for his decision was the obstructionist policy of the upper chamber for a government bill on the budget.

Under the Act 1911 appropriation bill, passed the House of Commons, but not approved within a month the House of Lords, was presented to the king and became law. With respect to non-financial bills was installed the following order: if this bill was accepted by the Commons in three successive sessions, and each time rejected by the House of Lords, it seemed to the king for approval. But between the readings Bill on first and third sessions was to be held not less than two years, which kept the House of Lords for the opportunity for a long time to sabotage the adoption of non-financial bills. At the same time the Parliament Act reduced the House of Commons term from seven to five years.

World War I

As to why the subsequent defeat of the German Empire in World War I, then researchers have linked it to the following reasons: 1) domestic and foreign policies of Germany as a whole did not meet the spirit of the times, and 2) the socio-political strikes and protests demoralized German army, and 3) promise Western democracies to influence the situation encouraged by the Germans, but could not really save the day. March 3, 1918 signed the Brest-Lithuanian agreement concerning the cessation of hostilities on the Eastern Front. In the West Kaiser's army nevertheless continued to make preparations for a decisive battle, though, military analysts predicted, the gains in the war had already been absolutely impossible. This fact is strenuously concealed from the German people. So, in July – August 1918, when Germany's military campaigns, one after the other defeated, senior military commanders Hindenburg and P. E. Ludendorff still retained the appearance of optimism, assuring the public the ability to quick victory in Germany. Meanwhile, already September 14, 1918 Germany's ally Austria-Hungarian Empire began to persuade the parties to sign a truce of a military conflict.

Undoubtedly, the main event of the summer and autumn of 1918, a kind of apotheosis of the end of the war was wish the German armed forces "to lay down their arms and surrender on any terms" – This was a disappointing surprise to Kaiser as chancellor of the country, and for party leaders to the Reichstag. Thus, already between the ruling elite of the country and the German people (soldiers Reichswehr) there has been a huge gulf in ideology and politics. German sources for this period of contemporary history note great regret the German people about the fact that during his (people) suffering, hardship and hope have been unsuccessful in the military field. The blame for what happened – for the war, with the course of military operations and their end – the Germans then laid responsibility for their commander in chief – the Kaiser of the country. October 3, 1918 the then German Chancellor M von Baden on behalf of Kaiser Wilhelm II made an unequivocal statement of U.S. President W. Wilson, his country's readiness to sign a truce. The news quickly spread through all areas of Germany.

In response to a statement he sent to Woodrow Wilson October 23, 1918 hinted at the impossibility of dialogue with Germany's authoritarian regime, which greatly complicated the situation on the eve of signing a peace treaty at Versailles. October 26, 1918 by Kaiser Hard-demand shifts from the position of chancellor commander of German troops, E. Ludendorff, who at that time unwisely insisted "the war to a victorious end." There is no doubt that the Kaiser pondered the question of the "end of empire", but was strongly against changing the monarchy Germany, believing that this will lead to the collapse of the constitutional way of life of the country. The necessity of its own presence in the office of Kaiser Wilhelm II explained, not least the fact that he must personally participate in the discussion of details of a peace treaty. October 29, 1918 an alarming situation in Germany worsened uprising of sailors one of the German fleet on the eve of its entry into the battle. The Audacity of sailors was not without reason: in Germany in the impending fall of 1918 to complete military defeat has intensified to the extreme social and political tangle of contradictions. The wave of revolts and strikes in the Army and Navy reached the seaport of Kiel. Stop the approaching revolutionary storm is not impossible.


My name is Dmitry, I am a fifth-year student. I spend almost every summer in the north – to work. And then decided that we should at the end of student life to relax a human being. The question arose – where? It could be the Altai, but I want to directly summer since summer – warm sand, sun-tanned girls. Sochi and the neighborhood – has heard, I do not.

Kazantip – but I'm not a club at all. Foreign – Turkey, Egypt, once there, Thailand – terrible, Goa, Bali, scary, but I want more than scary. Resolved – Goa. The decision was taken in early January 2010 and I began to slowly get ready. Where to start? Of course, the passport.

One glimpse had heard that problem could be with his receipt – turns wild and all that. But I have two Friends receive the passport and they say no problem, especially in January – out of season, the queues should not be. Visited the site. I looked all the information. I decided to make new passports (biometric). Recorded what necessary documents, downloaded the example program to complete the questionnaire (just downloaded the example of filling) and started. Program complete the questionnaire – "stupid," an ill-conceived and very annoying. Began to fill the questionnaire and I can not understand why the program does not have those rows that are in the example. It then occurred to me that on the screen these lines are not (a place for signatures for example), but the print will appear.